What If Colleges Used Only Test Scores to Fill Campuses

As Americans debate the roles of wealth, race and access in higher education, researchers at Georgetown University wondered: What would the nation’s most selective colleges and universities look like if they admitted students solely on the basis of SAT scores?

Their answer: The most prestigious U.S. campuses would be wealthier, whiter and more male¡ªleading researchers to question the role standardized testing plays in a fair, comprehensive admissions process.

More than half the students now enrolled at the top 200 colleges and universities would lose their seats to students who performed better on the test¡ªand the median SAT score would rise by 70 points to 1320, the study found.

The biggest losers in this reshuffling were black and Latino students, whose numbers would be cut nearly in half, to 11% of all students from 19%. The share of Asian students would slip to 10% from 11%. The principal winners were wealthy white male students, whose ranks would increase. But a large number of white students would lose their seats and be replaced with other white students.

The affluent have extraordinary advantages in college admissions, said Anthony p. Carnevale, director of Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce, which performed the analysis. Until 2005, Mr. Carnevale was a vice president at Educational Testing Service, which is a client of The College Board and administers the SAT.

Many elite colleges consider a range of factors such as grades, extracurricular activities and teacher recommendations in what they call a holistic admissions approach. They also try to build a diverse student body and might look for students from underrepresented ethnic or racial backgrounds or geographical regions.

The holistic admissions process has come under fire following the disclosure this spring of the biggest cheating ring federal prosecutors say they have ever seen. In addition, pending lawsuits filed against Harvard University and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, among others, charge that the schools racially discriminate against Asian applicants.

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The SAT does not and should not measure excellence on its own. Data are overwhelming that grades and test scores together better predict college success than either does alone, a spokesman for The College Board said in a statement. Comprehensive research demonstrates that sustained commitment to an activity in high school outside of class further predicts success in college and beyond. Resourcefulness in response to challenges has long been honored in college admissions as a dimension of merit and success in life. A focus on a single score would leave so much talent unseen.

The College Board, the New York-based nonprofit that oversees the SAT, is introducing an adversity score to accompany a student’s SAT results. The score is an amalgamation of socioeconomic data that measures factors like the crime rate, housing cost, family structure and school resources where an individual student lives and studies.

Researchers at Georgetown sorted admissions at the nation’s top schools as determined by Barron’s profiles of American Colleges. They took the 300,000 seats from those colleges and universities and filled them with top SAT and ACT scores earned by the 2.7 million high-school seniors who took the test in 2012. Then they compared who got the highest test scores to who got in by the actual admissions system, using Education Department data that didn’t include the students’ names.

The researchers used a composite score that standardizes both the SAT and ACT scores in terms of the SAT’s grading scale. Using that scale, the median SAT score of accepted students climbed to 1320 from 1250. The new bar for admissions meant that 159,000 students lost their seats.

The percentage of male students at the schools climbed to 54% from 50%. The most dramatic increase was among white students, who grew to 75% from 66% of the aggregated student body. The proportion of students coming from families in the top quartile of income distribution¡ªwhere the median income is $122,000¡ªincreased to 63% from 60%.
What if Schools Utilized Only Take a look at Scores to Fill Campuses?
As Individuals debate the roles of wealth, race and access in increased instruction, scientists at Georgetown University questioned: What would the nation’s most selective schools and universities glimpse like if they admitted students solely within the basis of SAT scores?

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Their remedy: probably the most prestigious U.S. campuses could well be wealthier, whiter and much more male?aleading researchers to concern the part standardized testing performs inside a truthful, comprehensive admissions process.

Additional than half the scholars now enrolled with the leading 200 colleges and universities would shed their seats to pupils who done better to the test?aand the median SAT score would rise by 70 points to 1320, the analyze identified.

The most significant losers on this reshuffling ended up black and Latino learners, whose figures could well be slice approximately in half, to 11% of all learners from 19%. The share of Asian pupils would slip to 10% from 11%. The principal winners were being wealthy white male students, whose ranks would improve. But numerous white college students would eliminate their seats and be replaced with other white pupils.

The affluent have incredible pros in school admissions, reported Anthony p. Carnevale, director of Georgetown University’s Center on Education and learning plus the Workforce, which carried out the analysis. Until 2005, Mr. Carnevale was a vice president at Educational Testing Support, that is a consumer from the School Board and administers the SAT.

Many elite colleges take into account a variety of factors including grades, extracurricular actions and teacher suggestions in whatever they call a holistic admissions approach. Additionally they seek to make a various university student human body and may well look for students from underrepresented ethnic or racial backgrounds or geographical regions.

The holistic admissions system has arrive under fireplace adhering to the disclosure this spring on the greatest dishonest ring federal prosecutors say they have ever seen. Furthermore, pending lawsuits filed against Harvard University as well as College of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, among the other folks, demand the universities racially discriminate in opposition to Asian candidates.

The SAT will not and will not evaluate excellence on its own. Knowledge are frustrating that grades and exam scores together better forecast college success than possibly does by yourself, a spokesman for the Higher education Board reported in the assertion. Comprehensive investigation demonstrates that sustained commitment to an activity in highschool beyond course further more predicts achievements in higher education and over and above. Resourcefulness in response to worries has lengthy been honored in college admissions as being a dimension of merit and success in life. A spotlight on a solitary rating would go away a great deal expertise unseen.

The faculty Board, the new York-based nonprofit that oversees the SAT, is introducing an adversity score to accompany a student’s SAT success. The rating can be an amalgamation of socioeconomic data that steps things such as criminal offense price, housing charge, relatives framework and faculty methods exactly where someone scholar life and experiments.

Researchers at Georgetown sorted admissions with the nation’s best educational facilities as established by Barron’s profiles of american Schools. They took the three hundred,000 seats from those people colleges and universities and crammed them with top SAT and ACT scores acquired because of the two.seven million high-school seniors who took the take a look at in 2012. Then they in comparison who received the highest check scores to who got in from the precise admissions method, making use of Education Division knowledge that didn’t consist of the students’ names.

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The researchers applied a composite rating that standardizes both the SAT and ACT scores in terms of the SAT’s grading scale. Employing that scale, the median SAT rating of recognized college students climbed to 1320 from 1250. The brand new bar for admissions meant that 159,000 college students shed their seats.

The share of male pupils for the schools climbed to 54% from 50%. Quite possibly the most dramatic maximize was amid white students, who grew to 75% from 66% in the aggregated university student human body. The proportion of scholars coming from households inside the top rated quartile of income distribution?awhere the median money is $122,000?aincreased to 63% from 60%.

When used as section of the holistic system, standardized testing gives a check out on opaque admissions, but it’s however no assure of fairness, Mr. Carnevale mentioned. It’s the perfect time to find a much better tactic.When used as part of a holistic strategy, standardized testing offers a check on opaque admissions, but it’s still no guarantee of fairness, Mr. Carnevale said. It’s time to find a better approach.

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What If Colleges Used Only Test Scores to Fill Campuses

What If Colleges Used Only Test Scores to Fill Campuses

 

应允许超大城市以外的所有城市实施限制

杨伟民11月11日在中国高质量城市发展研讨会上表示,中国城市化存在四个结构性失衡。树立空间发展观,进一步放宽户籍限制,完善农村建设用地产权制度,改革住房制度,促进城镇化优质发展。

工业化和城市化的高质量发展是促进高质量经济发展的两大任务。城市化高质量发展的意义是城市群经济、人口和资源环境的均衡发展。

環球置業Sakura Japan Property銷售總監高俊傑表示,由於看好海外樓市前景,於是再擴展業務至環球房產,現階段主力開拓泰國、杜拜及馬來西亞的房產項目。

为什幺要促进城市化的高质量发展?杨为民说,中国的城市化存在四种结构性失衡。首先,经济和人口不平衡,人口集中在大城市,但户籍制度限制了其定居。第二,财政资源和人口失衡,经济发展集中在大城市和大城市,财政体制导致地区和城市之间的人力和财力资源存在巨大差距。第叁是土地与人口之间的不平衡。其中,城乡之间的人口集中在城市。但是,农村建设用地不进入城市。人口城市化的半市场体系和土地城市化规划体系出现“制度冲突”,农村住宅区闲置。城市和城市的住宅用地短缺;在城市之间,一,二,叁线城市的土地分配和人口流动分配是不合理的。一线城市的住宅用地较少,土地价格过高,房价过高。一些叁线和四线城市有人流出,住宅用地增加。空置的房屋很高;第四是经济人口与资源环境之间的不平衡。根据行政区的城市化而不是城市群,特大城市扩大了馅饼,主要城区的功能过于集中。公共服务和就业主要集中在主要城区。许多人在旅行和浪费能源上花费了大量时间。

櫻之不動產(Sakura Japan Property)指出,根據新耐震法,1981年後的物業要達六級耐震,2000年後落成的物業更達七級耐震,最新型的建築物已達到免震級別。

杨伟民强调,要树立“空间均衡发展”的理念,即在一定的空间内实现“经济发展、人的全面发展、可持续发展”的均衡发展,既能增加财富,又能公平地分享所有人,又能保持N自然再生。

对于促进高质量城市化的具体措施,Yangweimin表示,首先应该明确城市的定义。划分“叁市概念”,即行政区的市、区的市、中心城市。以中心城区为政策单位,实行户籍管理、限购限住。

二是放宽对户籍的控制。特大城市只限制人口居住在中心城市,改善积分制度,特别是放宽农民工的条件,允许就业人员及其家属在中心城区以外的地区定居;超大城市以外的所有城市都有结算限制,优先考虑已经在城市就业的人及其家人安顿下来;城市负责人口及其家庭成员在城市的公共服务中的就业,实现“民事待遇”,解决地区之间的人均财政差距。

叁是完善农村建设用地产权制度。完善农村集体建设用地产权制度,使集体建设用地和国有建设用地以同等条件、同等价格进入市场。在符合规划的基础上,赋予业主独立使用土地的权利,完善农村宅基地产权制度,宅基地所有权属于集体,使用权或资格属于农民,房屋所有权属于农民。开展农民跨集体组织转移宅基地使用权试点。

地點固然重要,但面對更多日本樓宇買賣合約問題及政治環境因素影響要倍加謹慎,櫻之不動產(Sakura Japan Property)可為你提供更多資訊。想知道買賣日本樓詳細事項,可向櫻之不動產(Sakura Japan Property)了解更多。

四是住房制度改革。打破对住宅用地的垄断,增加对市场主体的住宅用地供应;打破对住房供应的垄断,增加对市场主体的商品房和出租房供应;打破单一市场结构,发展住房租赁市场;实现房屋租赁权和购置权;改革房产税;改革住房公积金制度,建立政策性住宅银行。

五是优质城镇化应以城市群为主体,实现规划,要素流,基础设施,生态环境,旅游,能源,大数据的整合。

六是编制和实施空间规划。县级各类规划叠加,消除重叠斑块,划定“叁区叁线叁网”。以城市群为单位,进行层次规划,确定自然层、网络层和各种功能区。县域与城市群的协调,形成了一个可操作的、可跟踪的、可检查的百年规划,并最终形成了一个蓝图。

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Mattress brand names go hi-tech for improved sleep

New age mattress companies purpose to make it easier for yourself to select the appropriate mattress by utilizing technology and giving free 100-day trials
Having said that, every one of the jargon could help it become more challenging for yourself to decide on a single. Here’s a helpful guidebook.

You would believe it is the best thing on the planet to carry out, but going to snooze is becoming an increasingly difficult exercise, and locating a good mattress to slumber on a lot more so. For the majority of of us who grew up on handmade cotton and coir mattresses, mattress terminology could be befuddling-take this description of the mattress from an Indian start-up retailing on Amazon.in: “Made from internationally qualified CertipUR-US foam and OEKO-TEX conventional hypoallergenic quality fabrics…” or this description of a pillow: “Contour ergonomic anti-snoring cervical orthopaedic memory foam ache reduction bed pillow for all sleeping positions.”

An online mattress brand in Hong Kong. A layer of latex contouring to your body for comfort while the individual pocket springs provides support.

The wide range of branded mattresses accessible these days, this kind of as spring, coir, latex, memory foam, bonded foam, and hybrid, is often confusing, and in some cases brands acknowledge this. Even in just a single classification (say, spring mattresses), there are many kinds, this kind of as constant coils, bonnel, pocketed coils, and so on., each individual variety referring on the condition and diploma of coiling with the spring. Even though spring technological innovation represents one of many more mature forms of innovation from the mattress industry, memory foam, invented by US area company Nasa during the nineteen sixties to help make aircraft cushions safer, is amongst the newest and most well-known undoubtedly, even though gel and latex technological know-how is speedy attaining recognition.

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Selecting the right mattress and pillow, and being aware of which can be the very best for you and also your relatives, includes a lot of trial and mistake that many new-age models like Wakefit, Sunday, Flo, Wink & Nod and Urban Ladder offer a 100-day demo period with a 100% refund.

“If you visit a showroom of any branded company today, the salesperson there will show you at least 10 kinds of mattresses from the same brand. Ask them which just one you should buy and they will say ‘every mattress is good’ and ask you your budget,” says Chaitanya Ramalingegowda, co-founder of slumber products start-up Wakefit.co.

Even though Wakefit, too, launched with five types of mattresses, this was the reason they eventually pared their categories to two: Orthopaedic Memory Foam mattresses and Dual Comfort mattresses. The former, the company claims, is an improvement on standard memory foam and is a four-layered mattress with harder support foam, a high-density memory foam, a transition layer with both types, and a proprietary “cool foam” layer designed to prevent the mattress from trapping heat, a problem with memory foam in hotter climates like India. “Since memory foam distributes body pressure uniformly while sleeping, it helps in excellent blood circulation. We made 15 iterations from the product in-house before finalizing the product,” says Ramalingegowda.

Sunday focuses on just three types of mattresses, two of which are latex-based: Sunday Ortho plus 4 (for lower-back and neck ache sufferers) and Latex plus 4 (for 30-plus people with back issues). It also has a budget-friendly regular memory foam mattress. “A excellent mattress can play a key role in turning around someone’s quality of life. We wanted to also simplify the whole process of shopping for one particular; breaking down the whole charade of having to choose from all of the multiple options and prices. We have just three models that come at a standardized price and could be ordered online,” says Alphonse Reddy, founder, Sunday.

Wink & Nod, meanwhile, offers a charcoal-infused memory foam pillow that the company claims filters indoor pollutants with the help of activated charcoal. The company also has a gel-infused memory foam pillow that seemingly absorbs body heat and has been designed for Indian weather conditions. Another new-age mattress-maker, Flo, offers two kinds of mattresses, Ergo and Ortho, for those who prefer softer ergonomic support and for those who prefer harder orthopaedic support, respectively. Flo has worked to reduce the number of layers in the mattress, and has innovated on memory foam to create a proprietary version it calls “Responsive Foam”, promising greater back support, temperature sensitivity, and “zero partner disturbance” (the mattress promises to reduce slumber disturbance due to a restless partner).

Even though both memory foam and latex are high on comfort and spine support, there have been a few concerns about memory foam mattresses releasing chemicals called “VOCs” (volatile organic compounds), leading to odours and gases (it is called ‘off-gassing’). Nevertheless these have not been conclusively proven to be toxic or allergenic to humans (experts say many new products, including new clothes and furniture, release VOCs), parents of newborns should keep in mind that memory foam mattresses are not ideal for infants-the mattress’s high responsiveness to body contours can cause infants to suffocate.

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How to select the right mattress

Longevity: Latex and memory foam mattresses don’t need to be changed for at least 10 years, though innerspring and pillow-top mattresses should ideally be changed after seven-eight years of regular use. Also, changing your mattress might be a superb idea if you are experiencing persistent neck and back discomfort.

Comfort: If you want mattresses with a superb bounce, latex ones are the healthiest option for your back and overall posture, as well as reducing odours and off-gassing.

Support: Memory foam usually tops this parameter as it conforms into the body and is resilient too owing to its motion-isolation capabilities (the foam absorbs the motion in 1 part on the mattress without rocking the entire structure). An orthopaedic memory foam mattress would be ideal suited for those who suffer from back and neck suffering.

Trial options: Most new-age mattress sellers offer 100-night trials after which you can return the mattress and get a full refund (provided there’s no damage). Get advantage of this to determine which mattress is a keeper.

Slumber position: Different types of sleepers need different levels of firmness in a mattress to be really comfortable, so keep in mind that experts say back sleepers need firmness between 5-7 on a scale of 1-10 (where 10 may be the most firm), even though side sleepers should decide on slightly softer mattresses with a firmness level of 3-6 (or a medium-soft mattress).

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